Method and apparatus for demodulation of a signal transmitted over a fading channel using phase estimation

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The Agt Limited patent solves the following problem:

Wireless communication network where a transfer portable radio can communicate with a fixed base station, the received signal can be severely degraded in many ways took the signal from the portable base station. The many ways could include reflections from hills, buildings and overhead wires. Because the signal needs in many ways, different reflections come to an antenna slightly separated in time, and the combination of many signal antenna may result in the cancellation of the signal for a period time. Such a loss of signal is called a fade. The length of the fade depends on the frequency of the signal and the speed at which the portable transfer. The problem with this signal degradation is called multi-path problems.

Our analysis of this patent is as follows:

Agt Limited’s patent US 5369670 A deals with Method and apparatus for demodulation of a signal transmitted over a fading channel using phase estimation.
A method and apparatus for estimating the phase differential of a transmitted electromagnetic signal from the amplitude envelope signal. facilities include a sampler, part estimator and demodulator. The phase estimator uses a Hilbert transform or a Hilbert estimate changes in the estimates of differential. The method used in the time domain or frequency domain signal. The phase differential is calculated by taking the differential of a function of the envelope, and use the Hilbert transform this differential. The result phase differential, after correction for the sign ambiguity can be used to demodulate the received signal.

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Valve assembly for introducing instruments into body cavities

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The United States Surgical Corporation patent solves the following problem:

This invention relates to valve system adapted to allow the introduction of a surgical instrument into the body of a patient. In particular, the invention is applicable to a cannula assembly where a cannula extends from the valve assembly and intended for insertion into the body of a patient to accommodate an instrument inserted through the cannula and valve.

Our analysis of this patent is as follows:

United States Surgical Corporation’s patent US 5360417 A deals with Valve assembly for introducing instruments into body cavities.
A valve assembly adapted for opera introduction into the body of a patient includes a valve body formed with a diameter resilient material that defines an aperture for reception instrument. aperture is configured and dimensioned such that insertion of the instrument into the aperture causes the strongest material in the valve body to resiliently engage the outer surface of the instrument in a substantially gas tight way. The valve assembly includes a biasing member at the end of the valve body to form a gas tight seal by inserting the instrument therethrough.

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Method and apparatus for heat treating a fluid product

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The Friesland(Frico Domo) Cooperatie B.A. patent solves the following problem:

Our analysis of this patent is as follows:

Friesland(Frico Domo) Cooperatie B.A.’s patent US 5360055 A deals with Method and apparatus for heat treating a fluid product.
Methods and apparatus for heat treating a fluid product, where the product is preheated in a countercurrent heat exchange process and heated to the desired temperature treatment in a throughflow heat exchange process, which was the primary countercurrent heat exchanger section, a higher pressure than atmospheric pressure prevails, and both normal operation and during the recirculation through the final section-temperature heating, the secondary countercurrent heat exchange section is maintained at a higher pressure than the pressure in the primary countercurrent heat exchanger section, while, should the pressure difference between the primary and secondary sections countercurrent heat exchanger drop the supply and keep the product stopped and the product concentrate is recirculated through the final section-temperature heating.

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