Extreme ultraviolet light generation apparatus

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The Gigaphoton Inc. patent solves the following problem:

It disclosure relates to an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light generation apparatus.

Our analysis of this patent is as follows:

Gigaphoton Inc.’s patent US 9301379 B2 deals with Extreme ultraviolet light generation apparatus.
An apparatus for generating extreme ultraviolet light may include: a room with an opening through which a laser beam was introduced into the chamber; a reference to members of the chamber mounted; a unit to target supply to give a target material irradiated with laser beam to a predetermined region of the chamber; a laser beam to focus Optical system to focus the laser beam on the predetermined region of the chamber to turn the target material into plasma; and a collector mirror for collecting the extreme ultraviolet light emitted from the plasma.

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Carbohydrate-selective receptors

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The New York University patent solves the following problem:

Natural saccharide-binding proteins, including lectins and Periplasmic substrate-binding protein, the use of water desolvation, hydrogen bonding (H-bonding), and CH partnership to selectively identify glycans may be different in orientation in a group hydroxyl achieve cost affinities, Kas, as high at 106 M1 (NEED with Glycobiology (Ajit Varki et al eds, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1999); BEAT ERNST et al, carbohydrates chemistry UG biology PART II .. biology of saccharides (Wiley-VCH. 2000); Ambrosi et al, org Biomol Chem 3: …. 1593-1608 (2005); Toone, Curr Opin Biol building 4: …. 719-728 (1994); Lemieux, Acc Chem Res 29: 373-380 (1996)). Selected carbohydrate recognition artificial cells remains a major area of ​​investigation for the challenge of differentiating between molecules in subtle structural differences, their ability to express the basic aspects of saccharide binding, and some potential applications for disease detection, therapy, or catalysis (Davis,. org Biomol Chem 7: 3629-3638 (2009); Davis & Wareham, Angew Chem Int Ed 38: 2978-2996 (1999); Mazik RSC adv 2: …. 2630-2642 (2012) ;. Mazik, Chem Soc Rev 38: 935-956 (2009); Kubik, Angew Chem Int Ed 48: ……. 1722- 1725 (2009); Jin et al, Med Res Rev 30: 171 -257 (2010); Walker et al, Cell mol Life Sci 66: 3177-3191 (2009)) ….. these two receptor using covalent and noncovalent interactions stabilize complexation. For example, change the reactions of boronic acid to syn-diols successfully used to selectively bind sugars, such as glucose and ribose, and sugar alcohols, such as sorbitol and mannitol (Jin et al, Med Res Pin 30: 171-257 (2010); Tony D. JAMES et al, boronic acid sA saccharide PAG-ILA (the Royal Society of Chemistry 2006); James et al, Angew Chem Int Ed 35: ….. . 1910-1922 (1996)), but the recognition of monosaccharides holding axial hydroxyl groups, such as mannose, remained challenging in this way. On the other hand, by following the principles of electronic cram in complementarity and structural preorganization (DJ cram & JM fill, Container molecules and their guests (The Royal Society of Chemistry 1997); Artz & cram, J. Am Chem Soc 106: 2160-2171 …. (1984); cram et al, J. Am Chem Soc 103: 6228-6232 (1981); DJ JM cram and cram, ACC Chem Res 11: 8- 14 (1978)), the molecules that bind created by the noncovalent association and do not distort the sealing importance. In these receptor, identify groups of rigidly position in three dimensional space, such as natural lectins (Weis & Drickamer, Annu Rev Biochem 65: 441-473 (1996) ), to overcome the entropy-enthalpy fee which any favorable enthalpic changes that arise from the formation of noncovalent bonds offset the entropically undesirable reduction in the internal actions of the army and the sealing visitors (Liu & Guo, Chem Rev 101 :. 673-695 (2001)).

Our analysis of this patent is as follows:

New York University’s patent US 9296688 B2 deals with Carbohydrate-selective receptors.
The present invention is directed to a new class of synthetic carbohydrate receptor compounds comprising Formula I as described herein: (i). The other part of the present invention relates to pharmaceutical compositions and pharmaceutical delivery vehicles containing the compound of Formula (I) The present invention is also directed to methods of treatment and diagnosis, which involves the administration of a compound Formula (I).

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Notification feed across multiple client devices

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The Dropbox, Inc. patent solves the following problem:

The present disclosure relates generally to online services within the government and in particular to provide notification of such services to many client devices.

Our analysis of this patent is as follows:

Dropbox, Inc.’s patent US 9300492 B2 deals with Notification feed across multiple client devices.
Event notifications can be delivered to a user across multiple client devices or platforms. If a user moves to a device, notification of all devices will be updated to reflect the action. For example, notifications will be subject index and file (or other), and many notifications related to the same topic can be consolidated on a server or client so far information will be presented to the user.

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Distributed privacy framework system and method of implementation

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The Piyush Kumar patent solves the following problem:

Our analysis of this patent is as follows:

Piyush Kumar’s patent US 9298935 B1 deals with Distributed privacy framework system and method of implementation.
An apparatus, program product and method to control access to a secure, encrypted webserver. A computer user can communicate with a cloud server with strong webserver with an End-to-End encrypted connection. webserver is able to run applications, receive and distribute the data also with webservers and receive and distribute data between the webserver and the client computer. The End-to-End encrypted connections will remain open until the client computer disconnects and the identity of the user who authenticated to a cloud server.

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TET2 as a new diagnostic and pronostic marker in hematopoietic neoplasms

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The Assistance PubliqueHopitaux de Paris, , Centre Henri Becquerel, , Institut National De La Sante Et De La Recherche Medicale (Inserm), , Institut Gustave-Roussy, , Universite Paris Descartes, , Universite Pierre Et Marie Curie, , Universite Paris-Sud 11 patent solves the following problem:

Hematopoiesis remain in a hierarchical system in which hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) give rise to multipotent progenitor, and the exchange between all types of mature blood cells. The molecular mechanisms controlling multipotentiality, self-renewal, quiescence and HSC commitments carefully studied. However, many issues remain to be addressed and the important genes control these processes remain to be identified.

Our analysis of this patent is as follows:

Assistance PubliqueHopitaux de Paris, , Centre Henri Becquerel, , Institut National De La Sante Et De La Recherche Medicale (Inserm), , Institut Gustave-Roussy, , Universite Paris Descartes, , Universite Pierre Et Marie Curie, , Universite Paris-Sud 11’s patent US 9297046 B2 deals with TET2 as a new diagnostic and pronostic marker in hematopoietic neoplasms.
The present invention of an in vitro method for diagnosing a myeloid tumor or a lymphoid tumor in a subject comprising the step of analyzing a biological sample from said subject to (i ) recognition of the presence of a mutation in the protein and family Ten Eleven transition of the 2 gene (TET2) coding for the polypeptide of SEQ ID NO: 2, and / or (ii) analyzing the TET2 gene expression; where the detection of such a TET2 mutation, loss of expression of TET2 or the expression of a truncated TET2 is indicative of a subject developing or predisposed to develop a myeloid tumor or a lymphoid tumor.

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Fibrosis susceptibility gene and uses thereof

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The Universite D’aix-Marseille patent solves the following problem:

Fibrosis is an excessive growth of fibrous connective tissue in an organ, any part, or tissue, for example a liver, any part or tissues, especially in response to an injury. Abnormal fibrosis occurs in chronic hepatic inflammations of various aetiologies such as Hepatitis Virus and schistosome infections. It was indicated that some members were infected with schistosomes slow fibrosers while others are rapidly fibrosers and it depends on a part of a major gene located on Chr 6q22-Q23 (Dessein et al, 1999. Mohamed-Ali et al, 1999).

Our analysis of this patent is as follows:

Universite D’aix-Marseille’s patent US 9297044 B2 deals with Fibrosis susceptibility gene and uses thereof.
The present invention disclosed in the recognition of a fibrosis susceptibility gene locus, the CTGF gene locus, which can be used to identify predisposition, diagnosis and recovery of fibrosis as well as for the screening of therapeutically active drugs. the invention resides, in particular, to a method comprising detecting in a sample from the subject before a change in the CTGF gene locus, in the presence of said alteration indicating the presence or predisposition to fibrosis.

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Chemically cleavable 3-O-allyl-dNTP-allyl-fluorophore fluorescent nucleotide analogues and related methods

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The The Trustees Of Columbia University In The City Of New York patent solves the following problem:

With the completion of the human genome project, with a focus on the development of new DNA sequencing technology to reduce the cost of the series dramatically without sacrificing accuracy, which could end personal treatment in healthcare today (1). Current state-of-the-art DNA sequencing technologies face limitations in terms of cost, reading the length and throughput. In this regard, the DNA sequencing by synthesis (SBS), which is the recognition of each nucleotide notice immediately after its incorporation into a growing strand of DNA in a polymerase reaction, offers an alternative way to address some of these limitations. An important requirement for SBS strategy is a 3-OH capped fluorescent nucleotide that acts as a change Terminator (2), which was the recognition of nucleotide attached to a DNA polymerase reaction, 3 -OH center group with the fluorescent label took regenerate a free 3-OH groups thereby allowing DNA chain elongation. The importance of getting the fluorescent label after each base to them is to ensure that the residual fluorescence from the last nucleotide incorporation will not affect the recognition sequence included fluorescent nucleotide.

Our analysis of this patent is as follows:

The Trustees Of Columbia University In The City Of New York’s patent US 9297042 B2 deals with Chemically cleavable 3-O-allyl-dNTP-allyl-fluorophore fluorescent nucleotide analogues and related methods.
This creation has a nucleotide analog comprising (i) a base selected from the group consisting of adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine and uracil, (ii) a deoxyribose, (iii) a allyl moiety bound to the 3-oxygen deoxyribose and (iv) a fluorophore bound to the base by an allyl linker and methods of nucleic acid sequencing using nucleotide analog.

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Antibodies with enhanced or suppressed effector function

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The Zymeworks Inc. patent solves the following problem:

Antibody proteins that exhibit binding specificity to a specific antigen. Native antibodies are usually heterotetrameric glycoproteins of about 150,000 daltons, composed of two identical light (L) chains and two identical heavy (H) chains. Each light chain is linked to a heavy chain by one covalent disulfide bond, while the number of disulfide linkages varies among the heavy chains of different immunoglobulin isotypes. Each heavy and light chain also regularly spaced intrachain disulfide bridges. Each heavy chain has at one end a variable domain (VH) followed by a number of constant domains. Each light chain has a variable domain at one end (VL) and a constant domain at its other end; the constant domain of the light chain is linked to the constant domain of the heavy chain and light chain variable domain associated with the variable domain of the heavy chain. Particular amino acid residues are believed to form an interface between the light and the heavy chain variable domain.

Our analysis of this patent is as follows:

Zymeworks Inc.’s patent US 9296815 B2 deals with Antibodies with enhanced or suppressed effector function.
Rationally designed antibodies and polypeptides that contain many Fc region amino acid substitution that synergistically provide enhanced selectivity and binding affinity to a target Fc receptor given. The polypeptides are mutated in many positions in order to make them more effective when incorporated into antibody therapeutics for those with wild-type Fc component.

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Targeting metabolic enzymes in human cancer

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The Agency For Science, Technology And Research patent solves the following problem:

Cancer is one of the main diseases in the 21st century that cause 13% of all deaths. New aspects of the genetics of cancer pathogenesis, such as DNA methylation and more recognized as important. While there are some chemicals that affect rapidly dividing cancer cells in the majority of these are toxic adverse effects. Chemo-resistance to many of these drugs can lead to relapse in patients always showed a more aggressive cancer growth, with little or no alternative treatments are available. New diagnostics, prognostics and therapies needed.

Our analysis of this patent is as follows:

Agency For Science, Technology And Research’s patent US 9297813 B2 deals with Targeting metabolic enzymes in human cancer.
Targeting metabolic enzyme in human cancer Abstract lung cancer is a serious disease and a major therapeutic burden with poor prognosis. The functional heterogeneity of lung cancer (different tumor formation ability of the majority of the tumor) is very associated with the clinical chemoresistance and return. Here we see that, glycine dehydrogenase (GLDC), a metabolic enzyme involved in glycine metabolism, is overexpressed in various subtypes of human lung cancer and possibly some other types of cancers. GLDC found highly expressed in tumor initiation subpopulation of human lung cancer cells compared to non-tumorigenic subpopulation. Through the forest in the study we showed that the normal lung cells expressing low levels of GLDC compared xenograft and primary tumor. Functional studies showed that RNAi inhibition GLDC inhibit importance of clonal tumor growth when cells in vitro and tumor formation in immunodeficient mice. Overexpression GLDC non-tumorigenic subpopulation converts the cells to be tumorigenic. In addition, over-expression of GLDC NIH / 3T3 cells and human lung fibroblasts transform these cells, display anchorage independent growth in soft agar and tumor formation in mice. Not only GLDC expressed in human lung cancer, it also regulates other forms of cancer, such as colon cancer. RNAi knockdown GLDC in colon cancer cell lines, CACO-2 cells, may also inhibit tumor formation in mice. Thus GLDC perhaps a new metabolic target for the treatment of lung cancer, and other cancers.

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Method for repairing or replacing damaged tissue

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The Ayman Boutros patent solves the following problem:

The soft tissues in our body connect, support and surround other structures and organs and include connective tissue such as skin, nerves, joints, fibrous tissue, fascia, fat and synovial membranes, and non-connective tissue such as muscles, nerves, and blood vessels. Over the course of the entire life of a man, some soft tissues may suffer damage as a result of injury, disease, nutritional deficiencies, toxins, pollutants and other environmental factors, surgical intervention , or simply the wear and tear. Tissue damage can result from many causes, including natural and man-made. Some examples of common cause significant tissue damage include painful wounds (including wounds, bruises, abrasions, penetrations, blunt injury or activities mentioned); surgical incisions (such as the internal skin and surgical incisions); implanting the device (such as prosthetics and other medical devices); and a variety of other injuries and illnesses.

Our analysis of this patent is as follows:

Ayman Boutros’s patent US 9295691 B2 deals with Method for repairing or replacing damaged tissue.
A method for repairing or replacing damaged tissue, or for providing post-surgical augmentation, comprising administering to a pliable biocompatible material and a physiologically acceptable suspension agent patients exposed. Copolymers with unsubstituted acrylate and substituted acrylate expressed as pliable biocompatible materials.

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